Class Learning

Communication Disorders in the Classroom: An Introduction for Professionals in School Settings, Fourth Edition

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    ISBN: 9780763727437
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    Fourth edition
    ISBN: 9780763727437

William O. Haynes, Michael J. Moran & Rebekah H. Pindzola

Speech, language, and hearing disorders have the potential to affect a student communicatively, socially, psychologically, and academically. In this work, the authors cover the range of impairments found in school-age children with suggestions for teacher intervention. Topic coverage includes: 1. Legal issues and service delivery models; 2. Normal aspects of communication; 3. The development of language and phonology; 4. Phonological disorders; 5. Children with limited language; 6. School-age and adolescent language disorders; 7. Dialectal differences: African American English as a case study; 8. Fluency disorders; 9. Voice disorders; 10. Hearing impairment; 11. Craniofacial anomolies; 12. Neurological impairment; 13. Communication disorders and academic success.

Each chapter includes teacher tips, key terms, study questions, and suggestions for further reading.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Communication Disorders in the Schools –
Background, Legal Issues, and Service Delivery Models
• Background Information: The Communication Disorders Professional
Communication Disorders in the Schools:  Caseload Issues
Legal Issues:  Public Laws Affecting Students with Communication Disorders
   IDEA 1997
   PL 99-457
   No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
   IDEA 2004
   Section 504 of the Rehabilitation act of 1973
   Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
• The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in the School System
   Case finding
   Participation in meetings for case staffings and Eligibility Determination
   Delivery of treatment
• Service Delivery Models: Multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary and
Types of Service Delivery Offered by the SLP
   Direct/Indirect Services
   Indirect Services:  Consultative/Collaborative Approaches
   Myths Surrounding the Consultative/Collaborative model
   Conducting Collaboration:  Some Practical Advice
• The Role of the Classroom Teacher in Identification, Assessment and  Treatment
Chapter 2
Normal Aspects of Communication
• Introduction
• Communication
• Language
• Speech
• Hearing
   Outer ear
   Middle ear
   Inner ear
Chapter 3
The Development of Language and Phonology
• Early Communicative Development:Gestures and Language
   Basic building blocks of communicative development
   Biological Bases
   Access to a language model
   Cognitive Ability
   Intent to communicate
   Social abilities
• Early Development of the Language Framework
   The nonverbal period   
   The single word period
   Early multiword productions
   The relationship between age and utterance length
• Summary of Early Communicative Development
• Communicative Refinement After the Early Multiword Period:
  Five Stages of Development
• Development of Speech Sounds and Phonology
• Phonological Awareness
Chapter 4
Phonological Disorders
• Background Information
   Nature of the problem
   Organic factors
   Functional disorders
   Case examples
• Assessment Issues in Phonological Disorders
   Standardized methods of assessment
   Speech sound inventory
   Contextual tests
   Pattern analyses
   Combination tests
   Type of speech sample
   How teachers can help in assessment
• Direct Treatment of Phonological Disorders
 Common techniques used by the SLP
   Motor-Based Treatment
   Oral-Motor exercises
   Cognitive-Linguistic Approaches     
• How teachers can help with direct treatment
• Indirect Treatment of Phonological Disorders

Chapter 5
Children with Limited Language
• Background Information
   Two major divisions of language impairment
   Who encounters students with limited language?
   The symptoms seen in limited language children
   Limited language children with different "labels"
   Why Not Have a Chapter for Each Type of Language Disorder?:
   Autism as a Case Example
• Assessment Issues
   Evaluation of children with limited language abilities
   Access to a language model
   Cognitive ability
   Intent to communicate
   Social abilities
   Evaluation of verbal communication
      The single word child
      The early multiword child
• Direct and Indirect Treatment for Children with Limited Language
   Structured versus naturalistic treatment
   Work on the BACIS of language
   Verbal and augmentative modes in treatment
   Determining the success of treatment
   Suggestions for teachers
   Concluding remarks
Chapter 6
School-Age and Adolescent Language Disorders
• Background Information
   Symptoms reported in students with language problems
• Assessment Issues
   The importance of teacher referral
• Direct and Indirect Treatment for Students with Language Impairment
   Five general guidelines in designing treatment
   The information to be communicated
   Modifying the presentation
   Modifying the environment
   Modifying the response
   Modifying learning strategies
   What type of treatment format is best?

Chapter 7
Dialectal Differences: African American English as a Case Example
• The Difference-Deficit Issue
• Ethnicity, Race and First Language Community
• Regional Variations
• Social Class Variations
• Peer Group Identification
• Communicative Context
• Dialectal Continua
• Specific Differences Between African American English and Standard
• English
• The Effects of Dialectal Variation on the Student
• How Can the Classroom Teacher Deal with the Dialect Issue?
• Dialects, Teachers and the Speech-Language Pathologist
Chapter 8
Fluency Disorders
• Introduction
• The Incidence and Prevalence of Stuttering
• Causation and Development of Stuttering
   The danger signs
   Developmental phases
• Assessment Issues
   Differential Diagnosis
   Judging severity
   Common Avoidance and Concealment Techniques
   Information the teacher can provide
• Therapeutic Principles
   Treatment options for the young student
   Treatment for the older student
   Ways teachers can assist in the intervention program
   Teacher tips for Classroom Management
• Other Fluency Disorders
Chapter 9
Voice Disorders
• Introduction
• The Nature of Voice Production and Voice Disorders
• Prevalence of Voice Disorders During the School Years
• Causations of Common Vocal Disorders
• Vocal Assessment Issues and Parameters of the Voice
   Breath features
• Direct and Indirect Intervention Options
   Vocal hygiene programs
   Voice treatment
• Suggestions for Teachers
• Background Information on Students with Altered Methods of Breathing
   Tracheotomized students in the classroom
   Students with laryngectomy
   Teacher tips for students with altered methods of breathing
Chapter 10
Hearing Impairment
• Background Information
• Nature of the problem
   Extent of loss
   Age of onset
   Case example
• Assessment Issues
   Methods of assessment
   How teachers can help in assessment
   Speech problems
• Treatment
   Hearing aids
   Assistive listening devices
   Cochlear implants
   Human resources
• Suggestions for Teachers of Hearing-Impaired Students
• Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)
• Controversies
   Educational placement
   Methods of communication
• Support for the Classroom Teacher
Chapter 11
Cleft Lip/Palate and Related Craniofacial Syndromes
• Background Information
• Nature of the problem
• Cleft lip and palate
• Causation and incidence
   Speech problems
   Hearing problems
   Language problems
   Academic problems
• Syndromes which include craniofacial anomalies
• Learning problems in children with craniofacial anomalies
• Suggestions for Teachers
Chapter 12
Neurological Impairments
• Introduction
• The Nature of Neuromuscular Problems
   Cerebral Palsy
   Augmentative and alternative communication modes
   Swallowing Disorders of Dysphagia
   Teacher tips for students with neuromuscular problems
• Students with Traumatic Brain Injury
   Teacher tips for TBI students
• Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder
   Accommodations to help the student with ADD
      Classroom activities
      Socialization and behavior
Chapter 13
Communication Disorders and Academic Success
• Students With Language Problems: The "High Risk" Groups
   Students with a history of preschool language delay
   Students with learning and/or reading disabilities
   Students who are academically at risk
• Curriculum and Teaching Impact on Students With Language Problems
   The school culture
   Teacher talk
   Curriculum and materials
   Reading: A Language-Based Skill
• Impact of Phonological Disorders
• Impact of Hearing Impairment

William O. Haynes, PhD-Professor Emeritus, Department of Communication Disorders, Auburn University Dr. William O. Haynes earned his undergraduate and master's degrees from Northern Michigan University and a Ph.D. in Communication Disorders from Bowling Green State University. He has co-authored six major textbooks in communication disorders on topics such as language acquisition, diagnosis, clinical practicum, communication disorders in educational settings and research methods/evidence-based practice. Dr. Haynes has published many research articles and has presented his findings at national and international professional conferences. He currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus in the Auburn University Department of Communication Disorders. Michael J. Moran, PhD-Professor, Department of Communication Disorders, Auburn University Dr. Michael J. Moran received a BS in Education from East Stroudsburg State University, an M.A. in Logopedics from Wichita State University, and a PhD in Communication Disorders with a minor in Special Education from Pennsylvania State University. He has worked as a speech-language pathologist with developmentally disabled children and adults, and is currently a Professor in the Department of Communication Disorders at Auburn University. He teaches graduate courses in voice disorders, phonological disorders and cleft palate. Dr. Moran has published numerous articles in the areas of phonology, voice and cleft palate and has presented many papers on the national level. He is a member of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Rebekah H. Pindzola, PhD-Professor and Chair, Department of Communication Disorders, Auburn University Dr. Rebekah Pindzola has over thirty years of experience in academic, administrative, and clinical sectors. She coauthored two best-selling texts in her field: Diagnosis and Evaluation in Speech Pathology, 7th edition and Communication Disorders in the Classroom, 4th edition. She also authored two clinical monographs: Stuttering Intervention Program Age 3 to Grade 3 and the Voice Assessment Protocol. Additionally, Dr. Pindzola has published research articles and contributed book chapters in the areas of fluency, stuttering, alaryngeal speech, and vocal assessment. She also has taught graduate-level courses in these areas as well as in anatomy and in neuropathologies of speech and language. Her PhD in Speech and Hearing Science is from the University of Tennessee. Dr. Pindzola has considerable experience at the collegiate dean and associate dean levels and currently she serves as Professor and Chair of the Auburn University Department of Communication Disorders.

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